The word “disinfection” means the destruction of pathogenic microbes in the human environment. Taking into account the role of disinfection in the system of preventive and anti-epidemic measures, it is customary to divide it into preventive and focal. The latter, in turn, is divided into the current and final.
Preventive disinfection prevents the spread of infectious diseases in a locality or among certain populations. To this end, it is carried out in water supply facilities, food facilities, including food outlets, animal processing plants, public facilities (stations, clubs, hotels, theatres, vehicles, etc.), health facilities, public restrooms, etc., depending on the facility for disinfection use a variety of means.
For example, chlorination is used to decontaminate water; utensils, bedding and a number of other objects are decontaminated; in public places wash the floor with hot water or subject the room to wet cleaning with disinfectant solutions, etc.
Regardless of the method of preventive disinfection, eliminating the possibility of transmission by any factor, excludes the spread of not one, but many diseases with the same mechanism of transmission. The effectiveness of this type of disinfection is affected by the regularity of its conduct, so chlorination of water at water stations, pasteurization of milk, etc. is carried out systematically.
The deir, as the name implies, is carried out in an epidemic hearth. If the patient is present here, the patient is disinfected. After hospitalization, recovery or death of the patient carry out final disinfection. It should be noted that both types of disinfection are performed in the medical facility where the infectious patient is located.
Current disinfection is one of the important methods that exclude infection of persons communicating with the patient. Its main task is the immediate disposal of the patient’s discharge (cal, sputum, vomit, urine) and various objects on which they can get.
The effectiveness of the current disinfection in different diseases varies. The best results it gives in intestinal infections due to periodic disposal of secretions and infections of the outer cover, if the affected places are covered with a bandage, a cap, stockings and socks, which is not difficult to decontaminate. In respiratory infections, the possibilities for ongoing disinfection are limited due to the constant excretion of the pathogen with exhaled air. In the case of this group of diseases, the wearing of respirators, as well as the use of spitting patients with active forms of pulmonary tuberculosis, justified itself.
The organization of the current disinfection is carried out by medical workers of sanitary, epidemiological and medical-preventive institutions (sanitary and epidemiological station, disinfection station, clinic, health center, children’s consultation, etc.). The role of doctors and paramedics in providing home health care is particularly important in this regard. They are obliged to teach the patient basic rules of personal hygiene and to implement rational methods of care for him, used to prevent the spread of infection. In the medical institution, the organization of the current disinfection is the responsibility of the head of the department.
The final disinfection is carried out in diseases, the pathogens of which remain viable outside the human body. Its task is to decontaminate objects with which the patient came into contact (room, furnishings and care items, clothes, leftover food, etc.). The list of objects to be disinfected is determined by a doctor or an average health care professional, based on the mechanism of transmission of the disease. For example, in the case of intestinal infection, there is no point in disinfecting the top of the walls and ceiling. In contrast, in airborne infections, disinfection of these parts of the room is necessary. The effectiveness of the final disinfection is influenced by the timing of its implementation. Therefore, according to the instructions, it should be held no later than 6 hours in cities and 12 hours in rural areas after the evacuation of the patient.
Mechanical, physical and chemical methods and means are used in different types of disinfection. They are very diverse.
Mechanical methods and means include washing hands with soap and brushing, wet cleaning of premises, removing dust with a vacuum cleaner and shaking out soft things, washing laundry, periodic whitewashing of walls, airing of premises, etc. Therefore, individual mechanical methods should be combined with the use of chemicals.
From physical means and means more often used boiling, burning and processing steam.
To defuse boiling, the objects are placed in cold water and then heated. The duration of boiling (exposure) is calculated from the moment of boiling water. If there are vegetative forms of microbes on the objects, boiling is carried out for 15-30 minutes, and in the presence of spo dispute forms of microbes – 1.5-2 hours. Metal objects (tools, utensils, etc.) boil for 10-15 minutes. In these cases, 1-2% of soda, 0.5% soap or washing powder are added to the water to dissolve fat and proteins on the objects.
Some objects (milk, grape juice, etc.) release from vegetative forms of pathogenic microbes by heating at a temperature of less than 100 degrees (pasteurization). Apply “high” pasteurization of milk with heating up to 85 degrees without soaking and “low” with heating up to 63 degrees and soaking for 30 minutes.
Disinfection flowing steam and steam under pressure are carried out with the help of autoclaves and disinfectant chambers.
Burning is used to neutralize low-value materials and objects, sometimes secretions, as well as corpses of people and animals.
Of the chemical disinfectants in disinfection practice most often used chlorine-containing agents, phenols, cresols and their derivatives, formaldehyde.