Immunization in the range of preventive measures has proven itself positively in the fight against smallpox, diphtheria, whooping cough, tetanus, rabies, plague, tularemia, anthrax and other diseases. Effective vaccines have not yet been available to prevent dysentery, ornithosis, infectious hepatitis, scarlet fever and other diseases.
Live vaccines and vaccines from killed microbes or chemical complexes extracted from them (chemical vaccines) are used for active immunization. In recent times, complex or associated vaccines have also been used to enable them to be connable against a number of diseases at the same time.
Vaccines against smallpox, polio, tuberculosis, rabies, tularemia, plague, brucellosis and anthrax are of real importance in our country. Vaccines against typhoid, cholera, leptospirosis, tick-borne encephalitis, whooping cough and other diseases are used from the vaccines killed.
Diphtheria and tetanus anatoxins were fully justified as a means of active immunization.
Currently, the following methods of injection of drugs into the body are used: subcutaneous, leather, intra-male, intramuscular, enteral, aerosol (aspiration) and combined.
Subcutaneous injections are used in vaccinations with killed and chemical vaccines and anatoxins. This method is time-consuming. It can be used only if strict sterility is observed.
The cancer and intracutaneous methods are used in immunization with live vaccines. Compared to the previous method, they are less traumatized tissue. In the skin-tight method for technical reasons (superficial or too deep incision, removal of the drug with clothing, residual action of disinfectant, etc.) sometimes observed negative results, so the vaccination of the vaccine is checked: in plague – on the next day, in brucellosis – after 1-2 days, with anthrax – on the 2-3rd day, in smallpox – on the 6-8th day, with tularemia – on 12-15th day. Individuals with negative results are re-vaccinated.
The intramuscular method is used to introduce serum and gamma-globulin. In this case, it is important not only to observe sterility, but also the rules adopted for injection of these drugs.
In intranasal immunization, it is necessary to remove mucus and crusts from the nasal passages. Otherwise, there may be no conditions for the vaccine virus to be used.
Immunization by the enteral method is carried out by a liquid vaccine or a vaccine in the form of tablets, candy-jelly, etc.
In the selection of persons to be immunized, the contraception must be taken into account.
Contradictions to subcutaneous immunization method
Immunization by subcutaneous method is not suitable for the following diseases and conditions:
1) acute infectious diseases, including the period of reconvalescence; in any case, vaccination should begin at least a month after clinical recovery (diphtheria, whooping cough), vaccination against smallpox – after 2 months;
2) feverish state;
3) active forms of tuberculosis and severe tuberculosis intoxication (children under 3 years of age infected with tuberculosis can be immunized if the doctor-physio for 6 months does not detect clinical signs of the disease);
4) allergic conditions: asthma, rheumatism during aggravation;
5) acute intestinal and dyspapic disorders and ulcers of the stomach and duodenum, hypotrophy II and III degree;
6) acute and chronic nephroso-jade and periodically exacerbating processes, pirium;
7) heart defects in the period of decompensation, condition after a heart attack;
8) blood diseases, leukemia, haemophilia;
9) Hypertensive disease;
10) Liver disease;
12) extensive wet eczema and common plyed skin disease;
14) diseases accompanied by caekxia;
15) Pregnancy in the second half.
Those who suffer from vaccinations are not exempt from vaccinations, but at the same time receive anti-relapse treatment. Contraception for rabies vaccinations is also not taken into account.
Contradictions to narcotics and intracutaneous immunizations
Immunization by skin and intracutaneous methods is not suitable for the following diseases:
1) acute infectious diseases;
2) severe chronic diseases of the liver, kidneys and other internal organs;
3) diseases accompanied by caekxia;
4) active forms of tuberculosis;
5) decompensated heart defects;
6) extensive wet eczema and common plying skin disease.
Contradictions to the enteral method of immunization
Immunization by the enteral method occurs without reaction or is accompanied by a weak reaction, so the method takes into account only the following contraindications:
1) Pronounced dyspepic disorders;
2) persistent resagulations;
3) diseases affecting the general condition of the child (pneumonia, otitis, bladder, etc.);
4) clear symptoms of birth trauma;
5) prematurity (baby weight less than 2 kg).
Gamma-globulin (passive immunization) is used to prevent a number of diseases (measles, infectious hepatitis, rabies, etc.).
Immunization is carried out on a routine basis and on epidemic indications. Planned vaccinations are carried out against diphtheria, whooping cough, tetanus, smallpox, measles, tuberculosis (certain age groups of the population), typhoid and paratyphoids (in a number of places), plague and tularemia (in the natural centers of these diseases). According to epidemic evidence, vaccinations are carried out by residents of settlements where there is a threat of disease spread.
The effectiveness of immunization, along with other factors, is influenced by the quality of the drug. It can decrease during storage and transportation, under the influence of high and low temperature.
At high temperatures, for example, the percentage of viable microbes in live vaccines decreases in a relatively short period of time and microbial bodies lyses in vaccines from killed microbes.
Low temperature, especially re-freezing and thawing, not only reduces the immunogenicity of many drugs, but also leads to complete unfitness of them.
Therefore, live vaccines are usually stored at a temperature of 4 degrees, and killed vaccines – at a temperature not higher than 10 degrees. In the same conditions, the transport of drugs should be carried out.