Infections of the outer cover
The pathogens of typical infections of the outer cover (trachoma, dermatomicosis, scabies, etc.) in the body are localized in the skin and its derivats and in visible mucous membranes.
At the same time, the pathogens of a number of diseases, affecting the outer tissues, more or less deeply penetrate into the underlying tissues (tetanus, rye, gas gangrene, skin form of anthrax, etc.) or spread to the deeper tissues and organs, from which and are released from the body (sap, foot-and-mouth disease, actinomyosis, ankylostomyses, etc.). Rabies and soda pathogens from the place of introduction (wound) reach the salivary glands.
Finally, the pathogens of sexually transmitted diseases are localized in the mucous membrane of the genital organs and penetrate into other tissues. Due to the peculiarities of localization of pathogens in the body, the mechanism of transmission of infections of external covers is very diverse.
The transfer of the pathogens of most diseases occurs through various objects used by a person in the course of life, contaminated with mucus, ingestion, scales, etc. Syphilitic and gonorrhea infection can be transmitted through hands, towels, utensils, tools, water, etc.
Epidemiologically, the disease of the outer cover is very different. The spread of many diseases in this group is influenced by the level of sanitary culture and the quality of medical and preventive services of the population. Epidemiology of wound infections is fully determined by the nature of injuries (agricultural, domestic, military). The spread of a number of diseases is also affected by the epizootic situation. The seasonality of outdoor infections is also varied.
Deactivation of the source of infection
It is possible to neutralize the sources of infection in different diseases with different fullness. It is especially difficult to neutralize the source of infection if the disease is widespread in a short period of time. For example, during a flu outbreak, a large number of cases preclude any possibility of exhaustive isolation. Partial isolation is often forced to be used in other diseases (measles, dysentery, etc.). In many cases, the full disposal of the source of infection is complicated by the specifics of the clinical course of the disease and the lack of available and effective ways to recognize it. In anthroponic diseases, the completeness of detection and disposal of the source of infection also depends on the attitude of the population (late treatment, refusal of hospitalization, independent treatment with antibiotics and other drugs, etc.). The fullness of the disposal of the source of infection largely depends on the possibilities of medical medicine. In many diseases, treatment still takes a long time and does not allow in all cases to exclude carrying (dysentery, typhoid fever, diphtheria, etc.). The nature of the source of infection – a person or an animal, a patient or a carrier, and if an animal, domestic, synanthropic or wild, etc., is also important. However, the disposal of the source of infection is an important measure to prevent many diseases.
The ways of defusing the source of infection vary. Wild animals and especially rodents are exterminated. For pets, in addition to slaughter, isolation and treatment are possible in some cases. Infected person (sick, carrier) as a source of infection is neutralized by isolation (separation), hospitalization and treatment.
Isolation of patients identified in the clinic, health center, children’s and other institutions, for a short period (until the moment of hospitalization) is carried out by placing the patient in isolation. In a number of diseases (dysentery, colenteritis, salmonella, chickenpox, etc.) the isolation of the patient at home is used. Hospitalization is used to isolate carriers in a number of diseases. More often, the carriers from the number of visitors to children’s institutions, as well as those working in food and water facilities are isolated at home. In chronic wear, in some cases, the nature of work (transfer to another job) changes.
Hospitalization of the patient gives a good effect in acutely flowing diseases (typhoid fever, recurrent typhoid, plague, cholera, etc.). It is much more difficult to use the method of hospitalization for protracted and chronic diseases, as in such cases long-term hospitalization is required.
Hospitalization is used not only to exclude infections from the patient, but also to preserve his health. Mandatory hospitalizations are subject to patients with plague, cholera, smallpox, rash and recurrent typhoid, typhoid and paratyphoids, infectious hepatitis and some other diseases. In plague, cholera, pox, along with the hospitalization of the patient are isolated and communicated with him in the isolation unit, located in the hospital. In recent years, based on the principle of “where the patient is better”, much wider than before, in a number of diseases (dysentery, colienteritis, salmonella, etc.) apply treatment at home. In the case of abandonment of the patient at home, measures are taken to prevent infection of family members (separate utensils, disinfection of allotment) and to ensure constant medical supervision. The patient is visited by a district doctor and a sister at a set time. After the end of treatment, a laboratory examination is carried out.
Many factors influence the effectiveness of hospitalization as an anti-epidemic intervention. For example, it is absolutely unacceptable to transport a patient on public and casual transport. For this purpose, you can use only specially equipped transport, which after delivery of the patient must be disinfected.
Among the measures carried out in the medical institution, it is especially necessary to allocate sanitary treatment of the patient, the placement of a patient with an obscure diagnosis and with a mixed infection in an isolated ward or box.