Methods of carrying out massage

Methods of carrying out massage

The use of manual massage or massages for thousands of years around the world as a way to treat both mental and physical diseases of the body, and scientific studies today show that massage therapy  improves the functions of the lymphatic immune system, also helps to regulate hormones, and can prevent many diseases and disorders. .

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It is the method by which the massaging hand performs three stages :

  • Fixation and grip of the massaging area.
  • Squeezing and pressing.
  • Weighted and upset and pressure and your father.

Physiological effect

  • Fatigue mainly affects the patient’s muscles , thanks to which the muscles have an increased tendency to contract and the elasticity of the ligaments increases.
  • Improves blood and lymph circulation, which leads to improved tissue nutrition.
  • Increases biological metabolism and improves the exchange of substances in cells.
  • Muscle fatigue decreases or disappears.
  • Functional vital muscles and motor function are increased.
  • We can say that a dehydration is the method by which the technical capabilities of a physical therapist can be judged, and it can be said that a dehydration is a reverse exercise of the muscles .

Basic methods technic

Longitudinal crunch

  • It is carried out along the muscle fibers, where the straight, straight fingers are placed on the surface of the massager, so that the first fingers (thumb) of both palms are located on the front surface of the massaged part, and the remaining fingers fall on either side of the massager, so this stage is the first, i.e. fixation.
  • Then the palms perform alternately the remaining stages, by moving them over the massaging area.
  • Use on the extremities, pelvic areas, back and lateral surfaces of the neck .

Accidental fatigue

  • The therapist fixes the fingers as wide as the width of the transverse fibers, so that the first fingers of the two palms (the thumb) are located on one side of the massaged part and the remaining fingers on the other side.
  • When massaging with the hands, it is better and more effective to stabilize the hands so that they are separated by a distance equal to the width of the rest, and then after that the three stages are carried out with the hands together or alternately.
  • If the execution is alternating, then it is as follows: The first hand moves the muscles away from them, thus implementing the third stage, while the other hand performs the third stage close to the muscles (it is possible to execute with the weight for one hand).
  • Use on the back, pelvis, neck, limbs and other areas .

Technique of auxiliary methods (backup)

Elbow (often done on the edges)

  • The palms of the therapist grip the massaging area on both sides, so that the fingers are straight (extended) and the fingers parallel, then perform the movements in opposite directions with the movement on the massaged area.
  • Use on the thighs, legs, forearm and upper arm .

Rolling (smoothing and forging)

  • It is performed by holding the first hand to the massaging area and fixing it, while the other hand performs the rolling movements where the massaging tissues shift to the fixed (first) hand while moving on the part to be massaged.
  • Use on the abdomen, chest, and sides of the back .


  • It is done by stabilizing the massaged surface with the execution of short, rhythmic movements that move apart or move the tissues from each other, called stretching the opposite movements. 
  • It is used when there are scars on tissues, when treating skin diseases, when paralyzed on the face and other areas.
  • Often performed by two or more fingers together.


  • Performed by fingers, a fist, or a resting base, possible with the use of a weight.
  • It is used in the back, buttocks, and nerve root end areas .


  • It is performed by the first and second or first and third fingers as follows: grasping, then tightening, and then squeezing certain areas.
  • Use on the face, neck, major nerve trunks, back and chest areas.

Practical directions

  • The muscles should be relaxed to the maximum with a good and comfortable hold.
  • Execution slowly, smoothly, and without breaks at a frequency of 50-60 movements per minute .
  • The implementation of the movement in ascending and descending directions without sudden shifting from one part to another, taking into account the nature of the patients.
  • The intensity of the massage must be increased gradually from one session to the next to prevent habituation.
  • Starting the implementation from the place where the muscles turn into tendons.

The most common mistakes committed

  • Fingers bend at the immobilization stage, leading to the patient’s disc.
  • Fingers slip on the skin in the second stage (squeezing), which leads to the patient feeling pain, in addition to wasting the muscle fixed by the therapist.
  • Extreme pressure with the ends of the fingers, which leads to pain.
  • Massage with tense hands and fingers, which leads to fatigue and exhaustion of the therapist.
  • Insufficient movement of the muscles in the third stage (shaking).
  • Work the hands at the same time when doing a longitudinal crunch, as the therapist tears the muscles in different directions, which leads to the feeling of great pain, especially in the elderly.


  • It is carried out by transferring vibrational movements from the massaging hand or from the vibratory device to the patient’s body.

Physiological effect

  • The shapes and types of this method have a clear reflective effect by causing an increase in the intensity of the reflexive signals.
  • Dilation or narrowing of the blood vessels alternating with the frequency and extent of the vibrations.
  • Reducing arterial pressure.
  • Decreased level of the frequency of contractions of the heart.
  • The secretory function of certain organs of the body changes.
  • The time to rebuild and rebuild bones decreases after fractures.

Basic methods technic

Constant vibration

  • It is performed by tiptoe or one finger, and this relates to the area of ​​influence, either with one hand or with both hands, either with comfort or with the base of the rest or with the fist.
  • It is used in the throat, back, pelvis, quadriceps, calf, upper arm, forearm, and along major nerve trunks .

Non-continuous (percussive) vibration

  • It is carried out by directing knocking or successive strikes by tiptoe half folded by the ulnar edge of the palm by the back of the fingers by the palm folded into the fingers or by the palm folded into a fist.
  • Movements are performed with one or two hands alternately.
  • Use on the upper and lower extremities, back, chest, pelvis, abdomen, face and head .

Technique of auxiliary methods (backup)

Vibration vibration

  • It is performed by the fingers or palms separately and the movement is carried out in different directions.
  • It is used on the depressing muscle groups, the larynx, and the abdomen .

Shaking by flicking

  • It is performed by one hand or both hands together with the patient’s palms or the leg-ankle joint.
  • This method is used only on the upper extremities, and it is applied by shaking the patient’s hand while shaking his hand horizontally, but when it is performed on the lower limbs, the flick is applied vertically with the fixation of the leg-ankle joint, provided that the femoral-leg joint (knee) is straight.

Vibration with chopping (pyramid)

  • It is carried out by the ulnar edge of the palm, so that the palms are at a distance of 2-4 cm from each other, the movements are rhythmic and along the muscles.

Vibration with clap (patting)

  • Performed by the rest surface or both palms, when this the fingers must be folded to form an air pillow to reduce the severity of the blows on the patient’s body.
  • Use on the chest, back, lumbar region, pelvis, lower and upper extremities .

Knocking vibration (clicking)

  • Performed by the ulnar edge of one hand or hands together, folded into a fist, and by the back of the palm.
  • For use on the back, lumbar region, buttocks, upper and lower extremities .

Pointillary vibration

  • Performed by tiptoe 2-3 or 2-5 in a manner similar to a drum beating (can be performed with one hand or two hands)
  • It is used on the face, places of exit of major nerves, abdomen, chest, back, and other areas of the body .

Practical directions

  • Its application should not lead to pain or discomfort in the patient.
  • The strength and intensity of the effect depends on the angle between the massaging surface (body) and the palm (hand) performing the massage. The closer the angle is to 90 degrees, the stronger and more intense the effect.
  • The duration of the strikes on a single area does not exceed 10 seconds.
  • The constant vibration with a small amplitude leads to calm the patient and Astrechaih .
  • The continuous vibration of the large amplitude leads to a completely opposite condition to the patient .
  • Intermittent (non-continuous) vibration such as hammering and chopping, especially in the elderly, should not be applied to the following areas: the inner surfaces of the thighs, the area below the knee, and the areas where the internal organs (heart, kidneys) are located.
  • Vibration is cumbersome for its port, which is why vibration devices should be used if available.

The most common mistakes committed

  • Applying intermittent vibration (chopping, hammering, or clapping) to tense muscle groups results in pain in the patient.
  • The strikes are directed at the same time and not alternately while applying the intermittent vibration, which leads to the feeling of pain in the patient.
  • When applying the twitch to the lower and upper extremities, the mistake is not to take into account the direction of the twitch (vertical or horizontal) and to keep the knee joint folded during the twitch, which leads to injury to the ligaments in the femoral-leg joint or to keep the elbow joint folded, which leads to injury to the ligaments.
  • The method is carried out with great force and force, which leads to the patient’s resistant reactions.