symptoms of colon cancer

What is colon cancer and what are its symptoms and causes?

Symptoms of colon cancer


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Most people who develop colon cancer do not have any symptoms in the early stages of the disease. When symptoms of colon cancer appear, they differ from one case to another, and they are related to the size of the cancerous tumor and its location within the colon.

Colon cancer symptoms and primary signs may include:

  • Changes in normal and normal bowel activity, manifested by: diarrhea, constipation or changes in the appearance of stool and the frequency of stools, lasting more than two weeks.
  • Bleeding from the anus or blood in the stool.
  • Tightness in the abdominal area, manifested by: cramps (cramps), flatulence and pain.
  • Passed stools in the abdomen.
  • Symptoms of colon cancer are also accompanied by a feeling that the stool has not completely emptied out of the intestine.
  • Fatigue or weakness.
  • Unexplained weight loss.


Blood in the stool can indicate a tumor, but it can also indicate a variety of other health problems. If the blood is a pale red color that can be seen on toilet paper, it is more likely to have hemorrhoids (piles / Hemorrhoids) or possibly an anal fissure (anal fissure).

In addition, some types of foods, such as beetroot or red licorice, may make stools red. Iron substitutes (medicines that contain iron) and some types of medicines used to treat diarrhea can turn your stools black. But this does not indicate the presence of symptoms of colon cancer.

However, despite all the aforementioned, it is highly recommended that any sign of bleeding (blood) in the stool be thoroughly and accurately examined by the treating physician, because the presence of blood in the stool can sometimes indicate a more serious disease.


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Causes and risk factors of colon cancer

سرطان القولون

Colon cancer generally forms when a group of healthy cells changes. Healthy cells grow and divide in a regular and coordinated manner in order to give the body the ability to work and perform its tasks, naturally and properly.

But the process of cell growth and division gets out of control, sometimes, so cells continue to divide and multiply even without the need for such a large number of cells.

This excessive increase in the number (quantity) of cells in the colon and rectal area may be accompanied by the production of precancerous cells within the inner colon shell.

Over a very long period of time – it could even be several years – some of these excess cells could turn cancerous.

In advanced stages of colon cancer, colon cancer can penetrate the colon wall and spread (send metastasis) to nearby lymph nodes or to other internal organs. As with all types of cancer, the exact cause of colon cancer is still unknown.

Precancerous (precancerous) tumors in the colon:
Precancerous tumors can arise anywhere along the colon, the muscular tube that forms the last part of the digestive system. The colon consists of 120-150 cm in the upper part, called the “intestine”, while the “rectum” (rectum) forms the last 15 cm.

Precancerous tumors often appear as a mass of cells (polyps) that protrude from the colon wall. Sometimes these polyps appear in the form of a fungus. These precancerous tumors can also appear as a flat, flat patch, or as a lumen in the colon wall. This species is complicated in terms of detection, given that it is very rare.

Types of colon polyps


There are several types of polyps in the colon, including:

  • Adenoma: This type of polyp has the greatest potential for turning into cancer (or cancerous tumor), and is removed and removed, usually, during screening tests and scans, such as colonoscopy or sigmoidoscopy
    Hyperplastic polyps: This type of polyp is considered very rare, and it does not usually constitute a platform for the formation and development of colon cancer.

  • Inflammatory Ployps: These polyps can form as a result of ulcerative colitis (or: ulcerative colitis).
  • Some of these inflamed polyps can turn into carcinomas. Therefore, if someone suffers from ulcerative enteritis there is a possible risk that they will develop colon cancer.

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Factors that affect the incidence of colon cancer